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Partido Comunista de España (Reconstituido) (Clandestine group, Spain)

PCE(r), Communist Party of Spain (Reconstituted)

Last modified: 2016-06-11 by ivan sache
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Flag of the PCE(r) - Images by Tomislav Todorović, 19 September 2012


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Presentation of the PCE(r)

The PCE(r) was founded in 1975 by transformation of the Organización de Marxistas Leninistas Españoles (OMLE - Organization of Spanish Marxist-Leninists), a Maoist group which had broken away from the Communist party of Spain in 1968. Its armed wing, GRAPO), which was founded next year, is actually better-known than the party itself; the date after which it is named, 1 October 1975, was the day on which the first violent action of the party members, the murder of four Spanish armed policemen, was performed, the deed having been considered the beginning of the armed struggle for the overthrow of Francoist regime and establishing of a Socialist republic in Spain.
The country's transition to democracy did not stop the group's violent activity - on the contrary, as it was becoming obvious that the process was going well, terrorist actions have intensified, even temporarily leading to the suspicions that the group name was just used as the cover by the supporters of previous regime who were trying to revert, or at least slow down the transition. This did not happen, because the consensus on the ways and goals of transition was achieved by all the relevant political groups, including the Communist party of Spain and a number of far-left movements which were initially opposed to some elements of the process (e.g., preservation of the monarchy), and it was supported by overwhelming majority of Spanish people. As the result, support for PCE(r) and GRAPO was decreasing and they were eventually marginalized during the 1980s, enabling the police to successfully neutralize the GRAPO.
The party was banned in 2003 due to its support for terrorist activities and GRAPO is currently inactive, although both nominally still exist.
[Wikipedia; Wikipedia]

Tomislav Todorović, 19 September 2012


Flag of the PCE(r)

The flag of the PCE(r) (photo) is red, with a fist holding both hammer and sickle, accompanied with a five-pointed star, all in gold, placed in the canton.

Tomislav Todorović, 19 September 2012


Flag of GRAPO

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Flag used by GRAPO - Images by Tomislav Todorović, 19 September 2012

The Spanish Republican tricolor with a red star in the center (photo, photo, photo) is usually considered the flag of GRAPO, being much more used and better-known than the flag of the PCE(r) itself, especially its variant with larger star fimbriated white.

The flag is probably used by both PCE(r) and GRAPO as the future national flag of Spain in case of the success of their struggle and not as their own flag, which is not unlike the use of similar flags, with varying star size, by a number of far-left groups, although these are generally not violent. Its design is very similar to that of the flag of the Socialist Yugoslavia (1945-1991), the difference being only in colors. However, it is rather dubious if that flag did serve as the model, considering that since the Tito-Stalin split of 1948, Socialist Yugoslavia was considered "revisionist" by all the Communist movements, which may have provided inspiration to PCE(r) and GRAPO, although the flag itself predated the said event long enough that it still might have been considered separately from the ideology of its users at the founding time of PCE(r) or at any other particular time.

Tomislav Todorović, 19 September 2012