Last modified: 2019-03-09 by ivan sache
Keywords: partido socialista obrero español |
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Flag of the PSOE, two versions - Images by Santiago Dotor, 25 April 2004, and Ivan Sache, 13 February 2019, respectively
The PSOE (website) was founded, as a clendestine group, on 2 May 1879 in Madrid by a group of intellectuals and workers, mostly typographers, led by Pablo Iglesias (1850-1925); the first program of the new party was approved on 20 July 1879 by 40 members. The first Congress of the PSOE was organized on 21 August 1888 in Barcelona.
The first Socialist Municipal Councillor, Manuel Orte y Andrés (1860-1901), was elected in 1891 in Bilbao. Pablo Iglesias, Rafael García Ormaechea (1876-1938) and Francisco Largo Caballero (1869-1946) were elected Municipal Councillors of Madrid in 1905. In 1910, Iglesias was the first elected Socialist Representative, a number increased to six in the 1918 elections.
After the proclamation of the Second Republic on 14 April 1931, three Socialist ministers were members of Niceto Alcalá Zamora (1877-1949)'s government. The PSOE obtained 93 Representatives in the 1936 general elections. At the end of the Civil War, the PSOE maintained a clandestine activity in Spain and activity in exile.
On 11 October 1974, Felipe González (b. 1942) was elected Secretary General of the PSOE during the 26th Congress of the party, held in Suresnes, near Paris (France). Legalized in 1976, the party obtained 118 Representatives and 48 Senators in the first democratic elections held on 15 June 1977; the PSOE was the first opposition party. This increased to 211 Representatives and 79 Senators after the 1979 elections.
On 28 October 1982, the PSOE obtained the absolute majority of the votes in the general elections, gaining 202 Representatives and 134 Senators. Felipe González presided the first Socialist government in Spain. He would preside another three governments, until the PSOE is defeated in 1996 by the Partido Popular.
On 14 March 2004, the PSOE defeated the PP in the general elections, obtaining 164 Representatives and 81 Senators. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (b. 1960) was appointed President of the Government. The PSOE lost again the majority to the PP in 2011.
In the aftermath of the Gürtel corruption case, Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy (b. 1955) was ousted on 1 June 2018 by a vote of no confidence and succeeded by Pedro Sénchez (b. 1972), from the PSOE.
Ivan Sache, 13 February 2019
The party's logo, designed in 2003, is made of two twin red squares, the left one with the party's initials in white, the right one with a white fist and rose.
The party's flag (photo), used either horizontally or vertically, is white with the logo. The flag is sometimes used with only the left part of the party's logo (photo), often together with the full-logo flag (photo, photo).
Santiago Dotor, Esteban Rivera & Ivan Sache, 13 February 2019
Flag of the PSOE, 1976-2003 - Image by Santiago Dotor & Ivan Sache, 6 June 2016
The legendary logo of the PSOE was designed in 1976, following the legalization of political parties in Spain, to replace the logo used since 1936 by the party in exile (image). José María Cruz Novillo (website) used the logo of the French Parti Socialiste as a model.
The party's flag was white with the logo.
In 1994, Rafael Celda y Asociados (website) designed a new logo, made of a red stylized rose on a white background (image). The legendary logo, however, was soon recovered, and kept in use until 2003.
Santiago Dotor, Jaume Ollé, Esteban Rivera & Ivan Sache, 25 March 2012