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History of British Naval Ensigns (Great Britain)

After 1603

Last modified: 2018-05-18 by rob raeside
Keywords: united kingdom | union jack | civil ensign | naval ensign | red ensign | white ensign | blue ensign |
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The Red Ensign 1800-present

[UK civil ensign] image by Martin Grieve

The White Ensign 1800-present

[UK naval ensign] image by Martin Grieve

The Blue Ensign 1800-present

[UK naval reserve ensign] image by Clay Moss

On this page: See also:

Introduction: British Ensigns used after the Tudor Years 1603-1625

In 1603 the House of Stuart replaced the House of Tudor as England´s ruling family with Elizabeth's death. James VI of Scotland became James I of England. Around 1620 we began to see the striped Tudor ensign begin to give way to new naval ensigns with solid-color fields. However, some naval ensigns using the Tudor striped format were reported still in use in the late 1620s, and some parts of the merchant service even longer. An example would be the red and white striped ensign of the East India Company, which was still in general use by ships of that company in 1673.
Pete Loeser, 5 May 2013

Baffin Arctic Expedition 1615

[Baffin ensign, 1615] image by Tomislav Todorović, 21 March 2007

(Editorial Note: Although not a Tudor Ensign, the ensign used by the Baffin Arctic Expedition in 1615 followed the established Tudor naval pattern)

Another striped ensign is shown on the map which William Baffin made during his Arctic explorations in 1615 and which is now kept in the British Museum, London. It was used there to mark two landing points. Its field consists of nine stripes in red, blue, red, green, red, blue, red, green and red colours, respectively from top to bottom. The canton is charged with the Cross of St George and is as wide as four stripes together.
Source: Istorija otkrića i istraživanja, vol. V: Poslednje granice Zemlje. Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana, 1979
Original title: A History of Discovery and Exploration, Vol. V: Earth's Last Frontiers © 1973 Aldus Books Limited, London
Tomislav Todorović, 21 March 2007

Stuart Royal Navy Squadron Ensign of 1620

#1   #2
Speculative images by Željko Heimer

     We know from Perrin (British Flags) that the Red Ensign began to replace the striped design in Navy Royale service from 1625 onwards, and that those stripes had been in blue, white and yellow, however, this Perrin does not give us the number of such stripes, the size of the canton or the width of the St George’s Cross. From it none-the-less, we can be certain that they had been completely superseded by 1633 (a survey of stores at Deptford carried out in April of that year).
     These images must be considered, therefore, to a certain degree speculative, however, they are based upon illustrations in two related, but non-specific works (The Fighting Ship in the Royal Navy and Dictionary of Sea Painters, both by E.H.H. Archibald), and upon a picture in the National Maritime Museum – The Return of Prince Charles from Spain, 5 October 1623 by Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom.
Christopher Southworth, 28 April 2013 and 5 May 2013

#3 - speculative image by Klaus-Michael Schneider

I made another drawing of the ensign (#3) according to E.H.H. Archibald´s Dictionary of Seapainters. The ensign is depicted in the plate opposite to p.20 as flag no. 27. The golden stripes in my edition are very thin, the golden colour looks somehow brownish. Maybe, the width is slightly bigger than in my rendition.
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 29 April 2013

The illustration in Archibald’s book matches the painting as far as one can see, and one might presume that the top and bottom are therefore also correct. This being so, the sequence of stripes from top to bottom (b = blue, w = white, y = yellow) should be: b-w-b-y-b-w-b-y-b-w-b-y-b-w-b-y-b-w-b-y, with the canton extending down to the top of the fourth blue stripe. Putting it in another way; it is a white flag with four sets of blue/yellow/blue stripes, a blue stripe at the top, and a blue and a yellow stripe at the bottom.
David Prothero, 29 April 2013

Željko's first image (#1) definitely follows Archibald's illustration, and as you said David, the painting is not terribly clear. Vroom's is the earlier image, of course, but this was painted some years before the Dutch tradition of accuracy in this type of genre was definitely established, and I am inclined, therefore, to (err on the safe side and) suggest that FOTW offers both as alternatives?
Christopher Southworth, 29 April 2013

The first image (#1) does not follow the illustration in my copy of The Fighting Ship (1984) by E.H.H. Archibald, curator of oil paintings at the National Maritime Museum. The second image (#2) does, although it might be better with a narrower St George’s cross, as in Klaus-Michael’s image (#3). An image based on a contemporary painting, which may, or may not, be particularly accurate, is better than an image that is not?
David Prothero, 30 April 2013

     It would appear that Archibald revised his images between that in the 1972 The Wooden Fighting Ship in the Royal Navy I was using, and your 1984 tome? We must therefore (and as you suggest) go with the second image. Since Željko's gifs with the wider cross were also based upon the 1968 image, I must also agree with you that this should be narrowed also.
     It is a moot point - at least at this early date - about the use of contemporary images as a basis for flag reconstruction, however as you say, however accurate or otherwise it might be, it's better than somebody's second-hand interpretation? Not that I am questioning Mr Archibald's scholarship or his expertise, it is merely a case of primary as against secondary sources, and (in addition to rewriting my notes) I will ask Željko to narrow the cross.
Christopher Southworth, 30 April 2013

All is explained, I think. My copy The Fighting Ship in the Royal Navy combines into one volume, two books, The Wooden Fighting Ship in the Royal Navy and The Metal Fighting Ship in the Royal Navy, previously published separately. I assumed that the first part of "The Fighting Ship ...", that dealt with wooden ships, was the same as the book "The Wooden Fighting ...", but it is apparently different in some respects. I take it that the attached jpg of the ensign on the "Prince Royal" is different to the ensign in "The Wooden Fighting Ship"?
David Prothero, 1 May 2013

Coincidentally or not, there's a Dutch pattern from the 80 Year War of a white flag with alternating orange and blue stripes that are a stripe's width apart. That would give the two a similar structure in more or less the same time frame. Whose influence is this on whom?

The 1984 interpretation I find unlikely. If the blue stripes are little more than edges, they'd be either on both the top and bottom or on neither. Look at Michael's version, where the ochre is just edges. It's only in between, connecting breadths of cloth as it were. Still, if Archibald had the painting at hand. ...
We really do need flag shots of these paintings; high-resolution of the entire painting just doesn't do it. Is this painting on display and is there someone near it who could shoot the flags, if permitted?
Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 23 August 2013

Stuart Royal Navy Ensign with red and white stripes

Flag hoisted at the poop (11 stripes)

image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 8 May 2013

An 11-stripes flag divided horizontally into alternating red and white stripes, according to source flown in the early 17th Century.
Source: E.H.H. Archibald: Dictionary of Sea Painters, flag chart opp. to p.20, flag nos. 25 (Tudor) and 26 (Stuart).
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 8 May 2013

Early Stuart Red Ensign and Jack - 16th Century

#1    #2
images by Tomislav Todorović, 9 May 2013

Fredrick Hulme briefly mentioned these two Royal Naval flags as coming from "a sea piece of the Sixteenth Century." The first (#1) appears to be an early version of the Red Ensign and was displayed at the poop of a unidentified ship in the picture, while the second was displayed like a naval Jack on the bowsprit of the same ship, but appearing very much like an early prototype for the Union Flag.
Source: The Flags of the World (1896) by Frederick Edward Hulme, Chapter 2
Image Source: Plate Eight
Pete Loeser, 9 May 2013

I have a copy of Hulme in my collection and have seen these two before, and I'm afraid I take them with a pinch of salt for at least two reasons: a) this is before the joining of the two crowns (England and Scotland), so they couldn't possibly be a prototype of the Union Flag, and b) the tradition of accuracy in marine paintings had not yet been established and the actual designs are quite likely to be a product of the artists imagination? Having said all that, the freedom of design which characterized sea flags in the Tudor era could well have yielded such a pair of oddities?
Christopher Southworth, 10 May 2013

While the jack was (almost certainly) not the prototype for the Union Flag, the ensign, if its existence could be verified, would have been the precursor of the modern Red Ensign - it would prove that the basic design, along with a multitude of others, was already used in the Tudor era.
Tomislav Todorovic, 10 May 2013

It is, to say the least, highly unfortunate that we cannot trust 16th Century illustrations with regard to flags, however, to show the basic design of a Red Ensign at least 25 years before such a thing was officially adopted (1625 or immediately thereafter) is a reasonable indication of design trends. I cannot agree with you that it actually "proves" anything Tomislav, but even given the lack of reliability in the source, the idea behind it must have come from somewhere?

It is true that we have written proof of the basic designs (e.g., "a banner with a Rose of white and green") of Tudor flags as they were supplied to various of the Royal Fleet, but what visual records we have for the period are considered somewhat unreliable. Having said that, they are all we've got as to what these ensigns, streamers and banners actually looked like, and an "unreliable source" is better than none (at least in my opinion).
Christopher Southworth, 10 May 2013

The purpose of naval ensigns in the 16th century (as now) was unmistakable recognition by all at sea and on land who might encounter the ship. The Royal Navy did not yet roam the seven seas, but it certainly encountered many foreign friendlies and hostiles. Surely most of these ships and coastal forts, at least in Europe, knew how to recognize RN ships. How did they do this? Artists may be whimsical and unreliable, but there must have been other sources, not to mention the designing and issuing authorities. I have little knowledge of 16th century naval matters, so my question is: has this been exhaustively researched?

For military land forces, the proposition is slightly different. Flags were company/regimental for its members to rally around and follow signals. Since colonels owned their regiments, there was little higher regulatory authority in the 16th-17th centuries, and most flag designs have been lost when the flags themselves disappeared. Foreigners did not really need manuals of recognition for such flags, so what survives was produced more for and by the historically-minded.
T.F. Mills, 10 May 2013

Ensigns ca. 1625-1800

Union Jack of 1707

[1707 union jack] image by Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018

The pattern which accompanied the 1606 Royal Proclamation (that established the flag) is lost, but [...] a copy (is reproduced in Perrin) of that which accompanied the 1707 Proclamation (of Queen Ann), and all evidence suggests that there was no change from the original."

Taking the Perrin illustration I made the UJ in overall proportions 110×145 (yielding the odd 22:29), with the width of the red cross 18, its fimbriation 6, and the white satire 15 units. I made the blue considerably lighter, just as Perrin shows in comparison with the 1801 model.

For the ensigns [below], I retained the relative widths of the crosses to the hoist size, but elongated the field to 110×180, and than resized it to an exact quarter (which may or may not be correct, further evidence would be needed), filling the remaining three quarters with the red or blue... For the blue I used the usual dark blue of the modern UJ, as Chris suggested that the illustrations tend to support the dark blue. These would have elongated to 5:9 by the mid 18th century and to 1:2 by its end.

I noticed in the Greenwich naval museum during the ICV in London, the actual ensigns that were produced for the navy by the default naval yard workshops were all much distorted with regard to the canton construction details. As far as I understood Barbara Tomlinson, this was the general practice and no more precise versions would have been used by the Royal Navy (or anyone else for that matter). They would have the saltire made of individual four pieces of white material, not even trying to appear "correct" - each occupying E-W diagonals more or less. Much like (a quick search) See also this one
Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018

The images below show the Red, White and Blue Ensigns of the British Royal Navy as they would have appeared in 1707, c1750 and in 1800, with the various proportions being 11:18, 5:9 and 1:2. The proportions of the cantons are, however, conjectural, with the earlier ones being based on the proportion known (from visual evidence) to have been in use by the English navy prior to 1707.

Until comparatively recently the sizes of flags made for the Royal Navy were traditionally calculated in “breadths”, and this was a multiple based one-half of the width of the fabric originally used to make them (bunting, buntine, bewper or beaufort). The fabric in question was 22” (approx. 56 cm) wide in 1687 with one-half of this being 11” (or approx 28 cm), however, this concept had shrunk to 10” (approx. 26 cm) by c1750 and had reached 9” (approx. 23 cm) by 1800. Thus, with half a yard (18” or approx., 46 cm) of fabric allowed per breadth, we have an ensign ratio of 11:18 in 1687, 10:18 (or 5:9) by the middle of the 18th Century, and 9:18 (or 1:2) by 1800. For example: a surviving list of flags supplied from Chatham Dockyard in 1691 includes an ensign for the flagship of 32 breadths, nearly 30’ along the hoist x 48’ long (approx. 9.1 x 14.6 m) – a huge flag.
Chris Southworth, 27 January 2018

Red Ensigns ca. 1625-1800

ca. 1625-1707      ca. 1707
[historic red ensign]      [historic red ensign]
image by Phil Nelson      image by Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018
     ca. 1750      ca. 1800
[historic red ensign]      [historic red ensign]
     image by Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018      image by Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018

William Crampton (1990) says on page 102 that when Charles I reserved the 1606 Union Flag for royal use in 1634, English civil vessels at this time began to use the Red Ensign: a red flag with the cross of St. George on a white canton.

A single Red Ensign is known to have been in use from 1620, but general adoption was not made until 2 July 1625.
Chris Southworth, 23 January 2018

A general change to Red Ensigns (from the previous striped variety) was only made in a letter by Rear Admiral Sir F. Stewart dated 2 July 1625, with ensigns in the squadronal colour (of red, white and blue) only being made mandatory (under the Commonwealth) in January 1653.

There is no evidence that Blue or White Ensigns were in use before the early 1630s (a survey of stores kept at Portsmouth in March 1653 is the first extant reference). I propose, therefore, that the date “c1630” be used for the Blue and White Ensigns, and that “c1625” be used for the Red. A single Red Ensign was, according to Perrin (p.117) “manufactured in 1621 (not 1620 as I wrote before) and a few more in the following years” but I do not believe that this constitutes an adoption.

The illustrations here of the 1707 patterns are based upon known ratios so are definitive, while those of 1800 are based upon a rare but extant survival of 1787 so are equally precise which leaves only those of 1750 (which are, indeed, suppositions).
Chris Southworth, 17 February 2018

Blue Ensigns ca. 1630-1800

ca. 1630-1702      ca. 1707
[historic blue ensign]      [historic red ensign]
image by Phil Nelson       image by Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018
     ca. 1750      ca. 1800
[historic red ensign]      [historic red ensign] 
image by Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018        image by Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018 

The suggestion for a general change to the Red Ensign (from the previous striped variety) was only made in 1625, with ensigns in the squadronal colour (of red, white and blue) only becoming mandatory (under the Commonwealth) in January 1653. In addition, there is no evidence that Blue Ensigns were in limited use before 1633 (this from a survey of stores kept at Portsmouth in March of that year).
Chris Southworth, 14 February 2018

An order that the white or blue squadrons of a fleet would wear ensigns (as well as pendants) of the appropriate colour was (according to Perrin) dated 14 January 1653. The mention in inventories of stores of blue and white ensigns (often defaced) from 1650 onwards, does not in itself imply adoption of the flag.
Christopher Southworth, 5 April 2018

White Ensigns ca. 1630-1800

ca. 1630-1702        ca. 1707
[historic white ensign]        [historic white ensign]
image by Phil Nelson        image by Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018
ca. 1750        ca. 1800 
[historic white ensign]         [historic white ensign] 
image by Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018        image by Željko Heimer, 24 January 2018

Alternative white ensign (for use in home waters) 1707- ca. 1720

[historic white ensign] image by Phil Nelson

The White Ensign with a Union Canton and plain fly was made for use “in home waters” as if there was some regulation abolishing it. Perrin (in his definitive “British Flags”) mentions it briefly on p118 where he states that “…both forms were in use as late as 1717, but by 1744 the older form had entirely disappeared”, and the only reference I can find in Wilson (“Flags at Sea”) is an illustration the flag but without any further information. The exact date of end of use is not known.
Chris Southworth, 17 February 2018

An order that the white or blue squadrons of a fleet would wear ensigns (as well as pendants) of the appropriate colour was (according to Perrin) dated 14 January 1653. The mention in inventories of stores of blue and white ensigns (often defaced) from 1650 onwards, does not in itself imply adoption of the flag.
Christopher Southworth, 5 April 2018

Royal Navy Streamers flown by the H.M.S. Lion 1745

Streamer flown from the foremast

Pendant of H.M.S. Lionimage by Tomislav Todorović, 02 May 2013

According to Fredrick Hulme this plain red streamer was flown by the HMS Lion from her foremast while engaging the French ship Elisabethe, on July 9, 1745 (as shown in a painting by Van de Velde). The plain red streamer was also used by all Colonial armed vessels during the 18th Century.
Source: The Flags of the World (1896) by Frederick Edward Hulme, Chapter 2
Image Source: Plate Three #25
Pete Loeser, 7 May 2013

The Tricolour or Common Pendant

Pendant of H.M.S. Lionimage by Tomislav Todorović, 02 May 2013

This is also from Hulme, illustration #74, Plate 8: "Pendant of H.M.S. Lion, 1745."
Source: The Flags of the World (1896) by Frederick Edward Hulme, Chapter 2, p. 40.
Image Source: Plate 8

The Tricolour or Common Pendant was according to Tim Wilson introduced in 1661. It was flown by vessels sailing under Admiralty orders (together with a Red Ensign) as a visual indication that any such vessel was not subject to the authority of a local flag officer. As far as I can discover the practice ceased in about 1850, although 1864 would seem a more likely date.
Christopher Southworth, 5 April 2018

Evolution of the British Ensign

Nathan Lamm asked, "How was the white altered? I hadn't thought the large cross was added that early [1702]."

According to Perrin (1922), the change in white command flags was contemporary with the change in the white ensign of February 1702. At first admirals of the white squadron were instructed to fly the Union as a command flag, however, by orders issued on 6 May 1702 this was amended to a white flag "with a large St George's Cross". (On the evidence of paintings) the cross had narrowed by 1710, and so it has remained to this day (becoming the command flag of a full admiral c1870 with the increasing demise of the sailing navy - confirmed in 1898).
Christopher Southworth, 29 June 2003

Based on descriptions in Wilson's Flags at Sea

Cross of Saint George c1277    [possible Elizabethan ensign] Tudor Ensign 1485-1603

[possible Elizabethan ensign] White Squadron Ensign 1702-1707 - images by Phil Nelson

Wilson's Flags at Sea (1986) has a black and white image on page 15 and states on page 14:

"By the end of the (16th) century striped ensigns were common on European ships and those of English ships were often distinguished by a cross of St. George in a canton or overall. To judge from the scattered evidence of illustrations, the colors of ensigns varied from ship to ship: although red and white (the colors of the cross of St. George) and green and white (the Tudor's livery colors) were used, there seems sometimes to have been no significance in the colors chosen."
Although no blue stripes are mentioned they may be implied by 'varied'; furthermore in old flag charts the colors blue and green were often confused with each others.
Jarig Bakker, 10 November 1999

Before then English merchantmen had often flown the Union, and before 1606 the plain Cross of St. George. However, there is an older English flag with a canton - the Tudor naval ensign, which was alternating green and white horizontal stripes (the livery colours of the Tudor family) with St. George in a square canton. I don't recall if there was a set number of stripes - I suspect not, but nine rings a bell. There is a reproduction of this flag displayed on the upper floor of the Victory Gallery of the Royal Naval Museum in Portsmouth along with a number of other flags from the Royal Navy's history.
Roy Stilling, 8 February 1996

     Stern Ensigns were, according to Perrin, a rather late entrant on the English naval scene and he gives a date of around 1574. Prior to this a simple Cross of St George would be flown, or perhaps the Royal Arms in addition to a great number of streamers and other banners.
     As far as the introduction of plain ensigns is concerned: Prior to c1625 English Royal Naval Ensigns were striped in various colours (green and white, red, white and blue, gold, white, and blue etc.,) with a white canton and red Cross of St George (or occasionally with a Cross of St George overall). Merchant ensigns were either striped with a St George canton (that of the Honourable East India Company is a survival from that age) or a simple cross of St George on a white field - if, that is, a stern ensign was carried at all, since a masthead flag of St George was the older form of recognition. The exact date of introduction of the red ensign is slightly uncertain, however, it is known that the recommendation was made in 1625 and that the striped ensigns had become obsolete by 1630 (for warships). The white and blue ensigns were introduced for all naval ships by an Order of the Navy Commissioners in 1653.
Christopher Southworth, 24 February 2003

The Royal United Service Institution’s Journal of 1880 contained an article entitled ‘The Heraldry of the Sea’ by J.K.Laughton, Lecturer on Naval History at the Royal Naval College. It included the following passage:

“..., and the tactical necessities of large fleets led to their divisions and subdivisions being distinguished, each by its own flag. In this the English Admiralty was beyond doubt guided by the usage within the Straits, amongst the Venetians or Genoese: in accordance with which the fleet was divided into three squadrons—the centre or red, the van or blue, and the rear or white—...”

Is anyone able to confirm that this was indeed the way in which the Genoese and Venetian fleets were organized ?
David Prothero, 31 October 2014

Concerning the English White Ensign bearing a broad red cross in use between 1702 and 1707, I thought that I should expand a little on the reason for this (short-lived) change: When the English were fighting the Dutch (as they were during the three Dutch Wars of the 17th Century) there was no possibility of mis-identification, however, when the English started fighting the French there was a real (or at least perceived) danger of confusing the white ensigns of the French with those of the white squadron of the English Royal Navy so the cross was added. (after one false start in February 1702 as shown).
   Was a Union canton simply added to this White Ensign with a broad cross in 1707, or was the narrower Cross of St George used (as seems likely) from the beginning – my guess is that it was, but we cannot be certain?”
Christopher Southworth, 17 February 2018