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Colombia - Political Flags - Part III

Last modified: 2017-09-29 by zoltán horváth
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Editorial Remark: It must be noted that all the opinions are of the authors and not of FOTW. Our site is non-political and concentrates only on vexillological issues.

See also:

M19 Movement

based on Encyclopaedia Universalis
image by Ivan Sache, 10 December 1998

based on photo at SEMANA Magazine
image by Eugene Ipavec and Ivan Sache, 28 August 2005

based on photo (see below)
image by Eugene Ipavec and Ivan Sache, 28 August 2005

image by Eugene Ipavec, 28 August 2005

Vertically divided blue/white/red, with M-19 in black in the white stripe.
Source: Photography of the funerals of the murdered past-leader of M-19 Carlos Pizarro, flag over the coffin. (Encyclopaedia Universalis, Yearbook 1991, p. 40).
Ivan Sache, 10 December 1998

According to  Courrier International #711, 17 June 2004, M19 is the 19 April Movement, founded on 19 April 1970, mostly by students. The M19 entered the armed struggle against the Columbian government in 1973. On 6 November 1985, the M19 seized the Court of Justice in Bogota. The seizure ended in a bloodbath when the tanks of the Columbian army attacked the Court. In 1989, the M19 abandoned the armed struggle and joined the political legal life. His leader was murdered when candidate to the Presidential election in 1990.
Ivan Sache, 27 December 2004

Here is a photo of Additional flag (variant with a logo showing a map of Colombia with the sword of Colombia's liberator Simon Bolivar and with the motto "Por el pueblo con las / armas al poder" (For the people with the / arms to power). Also here is a photo from SEMANA Magazine of a variant with different letter styles.
E.R., 23 March and 17 June 2005

Information taken from <>:
"The 19th of April Movement (Movimiento 19 de Abril--M-19) traces its origins to the allegedly fraudulent presidential elections of April 19, 1970, in which the populist party of former military dictator Rojas Pinilla, the National Popular Alliance (Alianza Nacional Popular--Anapo), was denied an electoral victory (see Opposition to the National Front , ch. 1). Although Anapo--which was subsequently led by Rojas Pinilla's daughter, María Eugenia Rojas de Moreno Díaz, following the dictator's death in 1975--denied all links with the M-19, the organization proclaimed itself to be the armed branch of the party. During the early 1970s, Carlos Toledo Plata and Jaime Bateman Cayón distinguished themselves as the M-19's principal leaders and ideologues. Toledo, a physician, was an Anapo representative in Congress. Bateman served as the M-19's principal commander for military operations. Both these men died during the 1980s--Toledo in a shooting by two men believed linked to the MAS and Bateman in an airplane crash. By mid-1988 Carlos Pizarro León-Gómez had emerged as one of the group's principal decision makers.
The M-19's ideological orientation was a mixture of populism and nationalistic revolutionary socialism. This orientation often led the group to seek political support from Nicaragua and Cuba, but the M-19's leadership also claimed that it resisted forming permanent foreign ties.
By mid-1985, when the number of active members was estimated at between 1,500 and 2,000, the M-19 had become the second largest guerrilla group in Colombia. According to the IISS, the size of the M-19 in 1987 was estimated at 1,500 militants. A member of the Barco administration who was in charge of the government's peace efforts, however, calculated that the organization had only 500 armed militants nationwide. By the mid-1980s, the M-19 had eclipsed all other guerrilla organizations in urban operations. The M-19 reportedly established columns (units) in each of Colombia's major cities. These columns were in turn organized into independent cells.
Although the M-19's early operations, begun in 1972, were limited to bank robberies, it quickly gained national attention through the 1974 theft of Simón Bolívar's sword and spurs from the exhibit in the liberator's villa. Two years later, the group kidnapped and subsequently murdered a Colombian trade union official the M-19 accused of having ties to the United States Central Intelligence Agency. In 1977 the M-19 began a campaign of economic sabotage. The following year, government offices and police stations became the targets of numerous attacks. In addition, the offices and representatives of United States-based multinational corporations were repeatedly targeted in an effort to drive the foreign interests from the country. Kidnappings of prominent individuals continued, some of which resulted in the deaths of the abductees. In 1980 the seizure and occupation, for sixty-one days, of the Dominican Republic's Bogotá embassy gained the group international attention.
The M-19's increasingly bold activities, coupled with evidence of Cuban training and logistical support, prompted a hardening in the policies of the Turbay administration during its final year in office. In 1982, however, the newly installed Betancur administration offered political amnesty in exchange for the M-19's agreement to a cease-fire. In July 1984, government officials and guerrilla leaders signed a cease-fire agreement at Corinto in Cauca Department.
By late 1985, however, the accord unraveled. Charging the government with, among other things, a systematic violation of the truce provisions and failure to implement key political reforms that were part of the cease-fire agreement, the M-19 returned to armed struggle. In October 1985, guerrillas wounded then-Commanding General of the Army Samudio. By far the most spectacular operation of the M-19 came the following month, when commandos seized the Palace of Justice in Bogotá. The ensuing battle between the M-19 and the military left over 100 dead, including 11 Supreme Court judges (see Interest Groups , ch. 4).
After the Palace of Justice operation, the M-19 reduced its activities, leading some analysts to surmise that its membership base had declined. In early 1986, the M-19 reportedly attempted to establish a common guerrilla front with members of Peru's Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Tupac Amaru) and with Ecuador's Alfaro Lives, Damn It! (¡Alfaro Vive, Carajo!) group. The March 1987 killing of Alvaro Fayad, the M-19's top political and military strategist, was believed to have dealt the organization a severe setback, however.
In May 1988, the M-19 again burst into public prominence by kidnapping Alvaro Gómez Hurtado, a two-time presidential candidate and Conservative Party leader. Gómez Hurtado's release was obtained two months later in exchange for the government's agreement to meet with M-19 leaders at the papal nunciature in Bogotá. The meeting was to have paved the way for a national summit to include representatives of the country's principal guerrilla groups. Barco subsequently announced, however, that he would not send an official representative to the preliminary peace talks." (Data as of December 1988).
from <>:
"Current Goals: The M-19 essentially ceased to exist in 1990. M-19, under intense pressure from the Colombian government's security forces, as well as right-leaning paramilitary groups, agreed to a ceasefire and shortly after laid down its arms permanently to become the Colombian political party, Democratic Alliance M-19. Predictably, some members rejected the cease fire, formed new terrorist groups, and continue to wreak violence and death throughout Colombia.
E.R., 8 May 2005

25th Anniversary Flag

[M19 Guerilla Movement (Colombia)]
image by Randy Young, 10 March 2015

Yesterday was the official commemoration day for the 25th anniversary of the signing of the peace process with the M-19, with the main event being held at Bogotá held at Bolívar's Square.
Also, in Medellín, another event was held in whith a commemorative flag was seen, based on their former guerrilla flag with the inscription "POR LA PAZ SIEMPRE" (in English: "FOR PEACE ALWAYS") on white letters, on the top (blue) fringe. The same image can be seen here.
Source:  )
Images are cropped images from news report by Hora13Noticias local broadcasting tv news)
For additional information go to:
M-19 (semi official pages): and
Esteban Rivera, 10 March 2015

AD M-19 Movement

[M19 Guerilla Movement (Colombia)]
image by Eugene Ipavec, 29 July 2007

Here is the flag of the former leftist group when it laid down arms. The group transformed into the AD M-19 (Alianza Democrática M-19, or Democratic Alliance M-19).
E.R., 23 March 2005

There's also a vertical banner variant of the ADM19, which is seen here.
Esteban Rivera, 10 March 2015

Marcha Patriótica

During April 21, 22 and 23, 2012 a massive demonstration took place in Bogotá, during the so called launching of this new sociopolitical movement called "Marcha Patriótica" (Patriotic March). Sometimes refered to as "Movimiento Político Marcha Patriótica" (Patriotic March Political Movement) , "Marcha Patriótica por la Segunda y Definitiva Independencia" (Patriotic March for the Second and Defnite Independence) and "Movimiento Político y Social Marcha Patriótica" (Political and Social Movement Patriotic March), it is established as they called themselves "the new left" and "a progressist movement", with the purpose of bring about change to the current political agenda and its disconformity with several actual measures that the government (elected in 2010) has taken so far, as their political manifesto

However this movement has its roots on a similar rally that took place  on July 20, 2012, the Bicentennial of Colombia's independence from Spain, and is already being labeled as a legal political support for the ilegal Farc guerrilla, that leads to a negotiated end of the current armed conflict, similar to the Entramado de ETA (ETA's Surroundings, refering to the cluster of social and political organizations that this Spanish illegal armed group has established to support its activities and have a legal front). One of the similarities with Farc, is the logo used by Marcha Patriótica
Source:, which is similar to that used by the Movimiento Bolivariano
South Moluccas, First flag

It is composed of (among a grand total of claimed 1.471 organizations nationwide including trade unions, indigenous people, etc.):
- ACVC (Asociación Campesina del Valle del Río Cimitarra, Peasant Association of the Valley of the Cimitarra River) (official website: )
- FEU (Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios, Federation of University Students) (official website: )
- Teatro la Candelaria (La Candelaria theater) (official website: )
- Congreso de los Pueblos (Congress of the Peoples) (official website: )
- Minga Social y Comunitaria - Asociación de Cabildos Indígenas (official website:
- COMOSOC (Coalición de Movimientos y Organizaciones Sociales de Colombia, Coalition of Social Organizations and Movements of Colombia) (official website: )
- Dissidents of the Polo Democrático Alternativo
- Coordinadora Nacional de Movimientos y Organizaciones Sociales y Políticas (National Coordination of Social and Political Movements and Organizations) (official communiqué)
- MANE (Mesa Amplia Nacional Estudiantil) (National Broad Student Board) (official website: )

The two driving forces behind this new movement are:
- Izquierda Liberal en Marcha (Liberal Left Forward) a movement within the Partido Liberal
- Partido Comunista Colombiano

The flag is a white horizontal flag with the logo in the middle as seen in the following pictures:
- (Source:
For additional information go to: Marcha Patriótica (official website):
Esteban Rivera, 25 April 2012

MIRA Movement (Movimiento MIRA - Movimiento Independiente de Renovación Absoluta

[M19 Guerilla Movement (Colombia)]
image from official website

The Movimiento MIRA was established on July 26, 2000. > This movement is already featured on FOTW. It has political representation at various levels and > different Departments.
Source: Screenshot of official website.
E.R., 3 November 2007

MOIR - Independent Revolutionary Workers Movement (Movimiento Obrero Independiente y Revolucionario)

image by Santiago Tazon, 2 September 2000

Thousands of workers and students marched on the US embassy and other places in Bogota and Cartagena de Indias, protesting because Clinton's visit. They fly several red vertical flags of MOIR (Movimiento Obrero Independiente y Revolucionario) - Independent Revolutionary Workers Movement. MOIR is a Colombian political (communist) party.
Santiago Tazon, 2 September 2000

This party was established in Medellín in 1971 as a result of the action of former members of the defunct Maoist MOEC (Movimiento Obrero Estudiantil y Campesino - Workers, Students and Peasants Movement). Its youth section is called th JUPA (Juventud Patriótica, Patriotic Youth).  
For more information see MOIR Official website and wikipedia.
 E.R., 15 July 2007

image by Eugene Ipavec (based on original by Jaumé Ollé), 3 September 2007

Jaumé Ollé reported in 2004 on a variant of the MOIR flag.
 E.R., 3 September 2007

Patriotic Youth (JUPA - Juventud Patriótica)

image by Eugene Ipavec (based on original by Jaumé Ollé), 3 September 2007

There is also the youth section of the MOIR party, the Juventud Patriótica (JUPA), or Patriotic Youth in English
 E.R., 3 September 2007

Movimiento Civismo en Marcha

[M19 Guerilla Movement (Colombia)]
image by Eugene Ipavec, 13 December 2005

There was an illegal organization in Colombia known as "El Cartel de Medellín" (Medellin Cartel). It was also known in its beginings as "Los Extraditables". However, this was some kind of umbrella organization that participated in many illegal activities such as narcotics, assassinations, bribery, racketeering, terrorism, "dirty politics" (corruption, etc.). This flag was used by a political movement called "Movimiento Civismo Unido" also known as "Movimiento Civismo en Marcha". This was a liberal-oriented political party headed by drug lord Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria (a.k.a. El Patrón, a.k.a. El Señor) which started in the outskirts of Medellin to erradicate poverty, build soccer fields and build houses as well (most of this through money laundering derived from narcotics trafficking) and it was his political platform to run for Congress as Member of the House of Representatives (lower chamber). He actually was elected as the second Representative of Jairo Ortega (another liberal) for the Department of Antioquia. So when Ortega was absent Escobar took his place in Congress (shortly afterwards his ties with drugs escalated a war that had already started and he was forced to step down and the manhunt began...). This episode became what is known as Colombia's Drug War (1984-onwards) although drug trafficking had been around since the 1970's. Pablo Escobar was shot dead on December 2nd, 1993 on a raid by the Colombian Police, by Colonel (then Mayor) Hugo Heliodoro Aguilar Naranjo (now the Governor of the Department of Santander), who led the final assault on Escobar's safehouse in Medellin. The image is a snapshot of the documentary "Los Archivos Secretos de Pablo Escobar" (Pablo Escobar's Secret Files) by Marc Beaufort, released on February 13, 2004, produced by Centauro Films, with the help of Escobar's family and close relatives. There is a little insight on the documentary which can be found at <>.
The flag itself is divided into three equal horizontal stripes and the colors are green (top), white (middle) and red (bottom). In the middle it has a red disc (very similar to the Japanese flag) and also three flags (one green with a white tree and another green flag with a book, the third flag being white with a red heart on it.
E.R., 7 June 2005 and 30 November 2005

The three depicted flags seems to be:  
- Black flag with white open book centered
- White flag with red stylized heart (like the playing card suit "hearts") centered
- Black flag with white tree at the fly.
Probably flagoids standing for some "virtue" each. Perhaps education, peace, and environment?
António Martins-Tuválkin, 18 December 2005

Actually the name is Movimiento Civismo en Marcha, as I verified today searching the web.
Source: Semi official website of the Documentary "Los Archivos Secretos de Pablo Escobar".
E.R., 4 June 2006

In recent news published by the newspaper El Colombiano on its online edition of July 30, 2006, some pictures of this political movement are shown. For example at <>, one can see the name of this political movement on a banner on the main stand where Pablo Escobar is giving a speech, one can see the emblem of the movement (a tree, and a book) right next to the person managing the sound.   At <> one can see a standing person with a moustache wearing a t-shirt bearing the emblems of the political movement.
 E.R., 2 September 2006